Brain is one of the largest and most intricate organs in the human body. It consists of 100 billion nerves that communicate with a 100 trillion synapses. It is made up of midbrain, hindbrain, and forebrain. It is responsible for movement and thought produced by the body. It has its own security system-a filtering mechanism consisting of blood vessels which allow entry of essential nutrients at the same time blocking other substances-known as the blood-brain barrier. Blood-brain barrier is a semi-permeable dynamic interface which separates the capillaries which carry blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue by blocking the passage of certain substances. It is formed by highly specialized endothelial cells. The vessels of the blood-brain barrier are made up of specialized endothelial cell which line brain capillaries from the vascular system which lack fenestration of pores and allow rapid exchange of molecules between vessels and tissues. The blood-brain barrier protects the neural tissue from harmful chemicals and maintains a stable environment. However, this barrier is so effective at blocking the entry of foreign substances that it often prevents penetration of life-saving drugs to address issues like injuries and diseases. Therefore, discovery of new methods allowing the effective delivery of drugs and bio-macromolecules to the central nervous system (CNS) is of immense importance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Neurodegeneration and neuro inflammation are major events in CNS disorders like Parkinson's disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. But still, the drugs for CNS treatment, like neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, EPO (erythropoietin), and anti-inflammatory antibodies (e.g., Enbrel and Remicade), do not cross the blood-brain barrier in effective therapeutic quantities.
Growing prevalence of neurological diseases like Parkinsons disease, meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and encephalitis, augmenting geriatric population, rising healthcare expenditure, increasing investment in R&D for the development of new drugs and delivery devices, growing awareness about healthcare, and rising number of initiatives by various governments and affiliated associations are few key factors driving the growth of the market.
On the other hand, intricate regulatory frameworks for the approval of drugs in most countries and inordinate approval time for drugs due to the insufficient knowledge of the brain are primary restraints for the growth of the market.
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Key players in the market are Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Pfizer, Inc., biOasia Technologies, Inc., Cypress Biosciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceutical N.V., Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries, Ltd., F. Hoffmann La-Roche, Ltd., Eli Lilly and Company, Fabre-Kramer Pharmaceuticals, Inc., NeuroVive Pharmaceutical AB, and ArmaGen.
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